Author: envgencauses

Chapter 12. Vaccine-Autism Studies Ignored by the CDC

Agmon-Levin N et al. 2009. Vaccines and autoimmunity. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 5:648–652.

Atkinson et al., 2002. General Recommendations on Immunization Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5102a1.htm

Blaurock-Busch E et al., 2012. Toxic metals and essential elements in hair and severity of symptoms among children with autism. Maedica 7(1):38-48.

Bradstreet, J. et al.,2003. A case-control study of mercury burden in children with autistic spectrum disorders. J. American Physicians and Surgeons. 8:76-79.

Deavenport-Saman A et al., 2015. Do children with autism overutilize the emergency department? examining visit urgency and subsequent hospital admissions. Matern Child Health J. 2015 Oct 31.

Delong G, 2011. A positive association found between autism prevalence and childhood vaccination uptake across the U.S. population. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 74(14):903-16. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2011.573736.

DeSoto MC. 2008. A reply to Soden et al.: your data shows autistic children have higher levels of heavy metals. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 46(10):1098; author reply 1098. doi: 10.1080/15563650802314368.

Fido A and S Al-Saad, 2005. Toxic trace elements in the hair of children with autism. Autism. 9(3):290-8.

Gallagher CM and MS Goodman. 2010. Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS 1997-2002. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 73(24):1665-77. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2010.519317.

Geier DA and MR Geier. 2007. A case series of children with apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies manifesting with clinical symptoms of regressive autistic disorders. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 70(10):837-51.

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Holmes AS et al. 2003. Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children. Int J Toxicol. 22(4):277-85.

Langer-Gould A et al. 2014. Vaccines and the risk of multiple sclerosis and other central nervous system demyelinating diseases. JAMA Neurol. 2014 Dec;71(12):1506-13. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.2633.

Li X et al., 2009. Elevated immune response in the brain of autistic patients. J Neuroimmunol. 207(1-2):111-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2008.12.002.

Liu XQ, 2011. Identification of genetic loci underlying the phenotypic constructs of autism spectrum disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 50(7):687-696.e13. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2011.05.002.

McDonald K et al.,2008. Delay in diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus vaccination is associated with a reduced risk of childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 121(3):626-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2007.11.034.

Mohamed Fel B et al., 2015. Assessment of hair aluminum, lead and mercury in a sample of autistic Egyptian children: environmental risk factors of heavy metals in autism. Behav Neurol. 2015:545674. doi: 10.1155/2015/545674.

Moise L et al., 2015. T cell epitope redundancy: cross-conservation of the TCR face between pathogens and self and its implications for vaccines and auto-immunity. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2015 Nov 20. DOI:10.1586/14760584.2016.1123098

Molina V and Y Shoenfeld. 2005. Infection, vaccines and other environmental triggers of autoimmunity. Autoimmunity. 38(3):235-45.

Nataf R et al., 2006. Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: implications for environmental toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 214(2):99-108.

National Academy of Sciences, 2012. Adverse effects of vaccines: evidence and causality. Committee to Review Adverse Effects of Vaccines; Institute of Medicine 978-0-309-21435-3 http://www.commed.vcu.edu/IntroPH/Communicable_Disease/2012/adverseffectsVaccines.pdf

Orbach, H. 2010. Vaccines and Autoimmune Diseases of the Adult. Discovery Medicine. http://www.discoverymedicine.com/Hedi-Orbach/2010/02/04/vaccines-and-autoimmune-diseases-of-the-adult/

Palmer RF et al., 2006. Environmental mercury release, special education rates and autism disorder: an ecological study of Texas. Health Place. 12(2):203-9.

Poling JS, et al., 2006. Developmental regression and mitochondrial dysfunction in a child with autism. J Child Neurol. 21(2):170-2.

Rinaldi M et al., 2014. Immune thrombocytopaenic purpura: an autoimmune cross-link between infections and vaccines. Lupus. 2014 May;23(6):554-67. doi: 10.1177/0961203313499959.

Rosenhall U et al., 1999. Autism and hearing loss. J Autism Dev Disord. 29(5):349-57.

Seneff S et al., 2012. Empirical data confirm autism symptoms related to aluminum and acetaminophen exposure. Entropy 14(11), 2227-2253; doi:10.3390/e14112227.

Sharpe MA, et al., 2013. B-Lymphocytes from a population of children with autism spectrum disorder and their unaffected siblings exhibit hypersensitivity to thimerosal.  J Toxicol. 2013:801517. doi: 10.1155/2013/801517.

Singh VK et al., 1998. Serological association of measles virus and human herpesvirus-6 with brain autoantibodies in autism. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 89(1):105-8.

Soden SE. 2007. 24-hour provoked urine excretion test for heavy metals in children with autism and typically developing controls, a pilot study. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 45(5):476-81.

Thomas P et al., 2012. The association of autism diagnosis with socioeconomic status. Autism. 2012 16(2):201-13. doi: 10.1177/1362361311413397.

Wahlund, S. 1928. Zusammensetzung von Population und Korrelationserscheinung vom Standpunkt der Vererbungslehre aus betrachtet. Hereditas 11:65–106.

Vargas DL et al., 2005. Neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with autism. Ann Neurol. 57(1):67-81.

Yasuda H and T Tsutsui. 2013. Assessment of infantile mineral imbalances in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Int J Environ Res Public Health. 10(11):6027-43. doi: 10.3390/ijerph10116027.

Yasuda H et al., 2013. Estimation of autistic children by metallomics analysis. Sci Rep. 3:1199. doi: 10.1038/srep01199.

Yirkud, YV, et al. 2009. Familial aggregation of quantitative autistic traits in multiplex versus simplex autism. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 150B: 328–334.

Young HA et al., 2008. Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: an assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. J Neurol Sci. 271(1-2):110-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2008.04.002.

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Chapter 11. Neurotoxin-Induced Autoimmune-Mediated Neurological Damage in Autism

Chapter 11. Neurotoxin-Induced Autoimmune-Mediated Neurological Damage in Autism

Akinrinade ID et al., 2015. Interplay of glia activation and oxidative stress formation in fluoride and aluminium exposure. Pathophysiology. 22(1):39-48. doi: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2014.12.001.

Arain MS et al., 2015. Correlation of aluminum and manganese concentration in scalp hair samples of patients having neurological disorders. Environ Monit Assess. 187(2):10. doi: 10.1007/s10661-014-4172-0.

Arndt TL et al., 2005. The teratology of autism. Int J Dev Neurosci. 23(2-3):189-99.

Authier FJ et al., 2001. Central nervous system disease in patients with macrophagic myofasciitis. Brain. 124(Pt 5):974-83.

Avella-Garcia CB et al., 2016. Acetaminophen use in pregnancy and neurodevelopment: attention function and autism spectrum symptoms. Int J Epidemiol. Jun 28. pii: dyw115.

Bhattacharjee S et al., 2013. Selective accumulation of aluminum in cerebral arteries in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). J Inorg Biochem. 126:35-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2013.05.007.

Bishop NJ, et al., 1997. Aluminum neurotoxicity in preterm infants receiving intravenous-feeding solutions. 336(22):1557-61.

Bondy SC et al., 2014. Prolonged exposure to low levels of aluminum leads to changes associated with brain aging and neurodegeneration. Toxicology. 315:1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2013.10.008.

Bondy SC. 2015. Low levels of aluminum can lead to behavioral and morphological changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease and age-related neurodegeneration. Neurotoxicology. 52:222-229. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2015.12.002.

Burbacher TM et al. 2005. Comparison of blood and brain mercury levels in infant monkeys exposed to methylmercury or vaccines containing thimerosal. Environ Health Perspect 113:1015–1021

Campbell A. 2002. The potential role of aluminium in Alzheimer’s disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 17 Suppl 2:17-20.

Campbell A et al., 2004. Chronic exposure to aluminum in drinking water increases inflammatory parameters selectively in the brain. J Neurosci Res. 75(4):565-72.

Canales JJ et al., 2001. Aluminum impairs the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in cultured neurons and in rat brain in vivo: molecular mechanisms and implications for neuropathology. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 87(1-2):63-69.

Charleston JS et al., 1996. Changes in the number of astrocytes and microglia in the thalamus of the monkey Macaca fascicularis following long-term subclinical methylmercury exposure. Neurotoxicology 17(1):127-38.

Charleston JS et al., 1995. Autometallographic determination of inorganic mercury distribution in the cortex of the calcarine sulcus of the monkey Macaca fascicularis following long-term subclinical exposure to methylmercury and mercuric chloride. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 132(2):325-33.

Conciatori M et al.,2004. Association between the HOXA1 A218G polymorphism and increased head circumference in patients with autism. Biol. Psychiatry 55 (4): 413–9.

Couette et al., 2009. Long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide is associated with chronic cognitive dysfunction. J Inorg Biochem. 103(11):1571-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2009.08.005.

Di Curzio DL et al., 2013. Reduced subventricular zone proliferation and white matter damage in juvenile ferrets with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Exp Neurol. 248:112-28. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2013.06.004.

El-Rhaman SS, 2003. Neuropathology of aluminum toxicity in rats (glutamate and GABA impairment). Pharmacol. Res. 47(3):189-94.

Eskes C et al., 2002. Microglial reaction induced by noncytotoxic methylmercury treatment leads to neuroprotection via interactions with astrocytes and IL-6 release. Glia. 37(1):43-52.

Exley C et al., 2014. Elevated brain aluminium and early onset Alzheimer’s disease in an individual occupationally exposed to aluminium: a case report. J Med Case Rep.8:41. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-8-41.

Exley C et al., 2014. Aluminium adjuvants and adverse events in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 10(1):4. doi: 10.1186/1710-1492-10-4.

Exley, C. 2014. Why industry propaganda and political interference cannot disguise the inevitable role played by human exposure to aluminum in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s. Disease Front Neurol. 5: 212.

Flarend R et al., 1997. In vivo absorption of aluminium-containing vaccine adjuvants using 26Al. Vaccine. 15(12-13):1314-8.

Flaten TP, 2001. Aluminium as a risk factor in Alzheimer’s disease, with emphasis on drinking water. Brain Res Bull. 55(2):187-96.

Fujimura M et al., 2009. Methylmercury induces neuropathological changes with tau hyperphosphorylation mainly through the activation of the c-jun-N-terminal kinase pathway in the cerebral cortex, but not in the hippocampus of the mouse brain. Neurotoxicology. 30(6):1000-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2009.08.001.

Gajkowska B et al., 1992. Ultrastructural alterations of brain cortex in rat following intraperitoneal administration of mercuric chloride. J Hirnforsch. 33(4-5):471-6.

Gherardi RK et al., 2001. Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide in muscle. Brain. 124(Pt 9):1821-31.

Gupta SK, et al., 1986. Absorption and disposition of aluminium in the rat. J Pharm Sci. 75:586–589.

Han S et al., 2013. How aluminum, an intracellular ROS generator promotes hepatic and neurological diseases: the metabolic tale. Cell Biol Toxicol. 29(2):75-84. doi: 10.1007/s10565-013-9239-0.

Ingram JL et al., 2000. Discovery of allelic variants of HOXA1 and HOXB1: genetic susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders. Teratology. 62(6):393-405.

Jensen-Jarolim, E. 2015. Aluminium in allergies and allergen immunotherapy. World Allergy Organ J. 8(1): 7.

Karakis I et al., 2014. Association between prenatal exposure to metals and neonatal morbidity. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 77(21):1281-4. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2014.932313.

Kawahara M et al., 2001. Effects of aluminum on the neurotoxicty of primary cultured neurons and on the aggregation of beta-amyloid protein. Brain Res. Bull. 55:211-217.

Kern JK et al., 2012. Evidence of parallels between mercury intoxication and the brain pathology in autism. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 72(2):113-53.

Krewski D et al., 2007. Human health risk assessment for aluminium, aluminium oxide and aluminium hydroxide. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 10 Suppl 1:1-269.

Kumamaru E 2014. Valproic acid selectively suppresses the formation of inhibitory synapses in cultured cortical neurons. Neurosci Lett. 569:142-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2014.03.066.

Kyoung-Jin Min et al., 2004. Protein kinase A mediates microglial activation induced by plasminogen and gangliosides. Experimental & Molecular Medicine 36: 461–467; doi:10.1038/emm.2004.58

Le Houézec D et al., 2014. Evolution of multiple sclerosis in France since the beginning of hepatitis B vaccination. Immunol Res. 60(2-3):219-25. doi: 10.1007/s12026-014-8574-4.

Lemire J et al., 2009. Aluminum-induced defective mitochondrial metabolism perturbs cytoskeletal dynamics in human astrocytoma cells. J Neurosci Res.;87(6):1474-83. doi: 10.1002/jnr.21965.

Li XB et al., 2009. Glia activation induced by peripheral administration of aluminum oxide nanoparticles in rat brains. Nanomedicine. 5(4):473-9. doi: 10.1016/j.nano.2009.01.013.

Luján L et al., 2013. Autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome) in commercial sheep. Immunol Res. 56(2-3):317-24. doi: 10.1007/s12026-013-8404-0.

Meiri H et al., 1991. Aluminum ingestion–is it related to dementia? Rev Environ Health. 9(4):191-205.

Minami T et al., 2010. Induction of metallothionein in mouse cerebellum and cerebrum with low-dose Thimerosal injection. Cell Biol Toxicol. 26(2):143-52. doi: 10.1007/s10565-009-9124-z.

Miyazaki K et al., 2005. Maternal administration of thalidomide or valproic acid causes abnormal serotonergic neurons in the offspring: implication for pathogenesis of autism. Int J Dev Neurosci. 23(2-3):287-97.

Monnet-Tschudi F et al., 1996. Comparison of the developmental effects of two mercury compounds on glial cells and neurons in aggregate cultures of rat telencephalon. Brain Res. 741(1-2):52-9.

Nayak P et al., 2001. Effects of aluminum exposure on brain glutamate and GABA systems: an experimental study in rats. 39(12):1285-9.

Nayak P et al., 2002. Response of regional brain glutamate transaminases of rat to aluminum in protein malnutrition. BMC Neurosci. 28 3:12.

Ni M et al., 2011. Comparative study on the response of rat primary astrocytes and microglia to methylmercury toxicity. Glia. 59(5):810-20. doi: 10.1002/glia.21153.

Olczak M, et al.,2009. Neonatal administration of a vaccine preservative, Thimerosal, produces lasting impairment of nociception and apparent activation of opioid system in rats. Brain Res 1301:143–151

Petrik MS et al., 2007. Aluminum adjuvant linked to Gulf War illness induces motor neuron death in mice. Neuromolecular Med. 9(1):83-100.

Poddighe D et al., 2014. A sudden onset of a pseudo-neurological syndrome after HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvated vaccine: might it be an autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) presenting as a somatoform disorder? Immunol Res. 60(2-3):236-46. doi: 10.1007/s12026-014-8575-3.

Polizzi S et al., 2002. Neurotoxic effects of aluminium among foundry workers and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurotoxicology. 23(6):761-74.

Pohl HR et al., 2011. Metal ions affecting the neurological system. Met Ions Life Sci. 8:247-62.

Piyasirisilp S et al.,2002. Neurological adverse events associated with vaccination. Curr Opin Neurol. 15(3):333-8.

Project TENDR, 2016. Targeting Environmental Neuro-Developmental Risks. The TENDR Consensus Statement. Environmental Health Perspectives 124:A118-122/ http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/124/7/EHP358.alt.pdf

Qvarnstro¨m J et al.,2003. Determination of methylmercury, ethylmercury and inorganic mercury in mouse tissues, following administration of Thimerosal, by species-specific isotope dilution GC-inductively coupled plasma-MS. Anal Chem 75:4120–4124.

Redhead K, et al., 1992. Aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines transiently increase aluminum levels in murine brain tissue. Pharmacol.Toxico. 70:278-280.

Roda E et al., 2008. Cerebellum cholinergic muscarinic receptor (subtype-2 and -3) and cytoarchitecture after developmental exposure to methylmercury: an immunohistochemical study in rat. J Chem Neuroanat. 35(3):285-94. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2008.01.003.

Rodier, PM et al., 1996. Embryological origin for autism: developmental anomalies of the cranial nerve motor nuclei. J.Comp.Neurol., 370:247-261.

Rodier PM 2003. Converging evidence for brain stem injury in autism. Dev. Psychopathol. 14 (3): 537–57.

Rodrigues JL et al., 2010. Identification and distribution of mercury species in rat tissues following administration of Thimerosal or methylmercury. Arch Toxicol 84:891–896

Roider G, Drasch G. 1999. Concentration of aluminium in human tissues – investigations on an occupationally non-exposed population in Southern Bavaria (Germany). Trace Elem Electrolytes 16:77–86.

Rossignol DA et al., 2014. Environmental toxicants and autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review. Transl Psychiatry. 2014 4:e360. doi: 10.1038/tp.2014.4.

Sakamoto M et al. 2008. Possible involvement of cathepsin B released by microglia in methylmercury-induced cerebellar pathological changes in the adult rat. Neurosci Lett. 442(3):292–6.

Savory J et al., 2006. Mechanisms of aluminum-induced neurodegeneration in animals: Implications for Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 10(2-3):135-44.

Shaw CA et al., 2013. Administration of aluminium to neonatal mice in vaccine-relevant amounts is associated with adverse long term neurological outcomes. J Inorg Biochem. 128:237-44. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2013.07.022.

Shaw CA et al., 2014. Aluminum-induced entropy in biological systems: implications for neurological disease. J Toxicol. 491316. doi: 10.1155/2014/491316.

Shoenfeld Y et al., 2011. ‘ASIA’ – autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants. J Autoimmun. 36(1):4-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2010.07.003.

Snow WM et al., 2008. Altered morphology of motor cortex neurons in the VPA rat model of autism. Dev Psychobiol. 50(7):633-9.

Stevanović ID et al., 2011. N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester influence on aluminium toxicity in the brain. Folia Neuropathol. 49(3):219-29.

Sullivan NR et al., 2004. Effect of valproic acid on serotonin-2A receptor signaling in C6 glioma cells. J Neurochem. 90(5):1269-75.

Tamburo E et al., 2015. Trace elements in scalp hair samples from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. PLoS One. 10(4):e0122142. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122142.

Thomas Curtis J et al., 2011. Chronic inorganic mercury exposure induces sex-specific changes in central TNFα expression: importance in autism? Neurosci Lett504(1):40-4. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2011.08.053.

Uno, Y et al., 2015. Early exposure to the combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and Thimerosal-containing vaccines and risk of autism spectrum disorder. Vaccine 33(21):2511-6. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.12.036.

Verdier F, 2005.  Aluminium assay and evaluation of the local reaction at several time points after intramuscular administration of aluminium containing vaccines in the Cynomolgus monkey. Vaccine. 23:1359–1367.

Willhite CC et al., 2014. Systematic review of potential health risks posed by pharmaceutical, occupational and consumer exposures to metallic and nanoscale aluminum, aluminum oxides, aluminum hydroxide and its soluble salts. Crit Rev Toxicol. 44 Suppl 4:1-80. doi: 10.3109/10408444.2014.934439.

Yokel RA, O’Callaghan JP. 1998. An aluminium-induced increase in GFAP is attenuated by some chelators. Neurotoxicol Teratol 20: 55-60.

Yokel, R.A. 2012. Aluminum in food – The nature and contribution of food additives. In: Yehia El-Samragy (ed), Food Additive, InTech, ISBN 978-953-51-0067-6, 2012, pp. 203-228.

Zhang L et al., 2014. Aluminium chloride impairs long-term memory and downregulates cAMP-PKA-CREB signalling in rats. Toxicology. 323:95-108. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2014.06.011.

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Chapter 10. Gastrointestinal and Renal Phenotypes in ASD

Abdel-Hamid et al., 2013. Effect of vitamin E and selenium against aluminum-induced nephrotoxicity in pregnant rats. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 51:312-9. doi: 10.5603/FHC.2013.0042.

Abramson RK et al., 1989. Elevated blood serotonin in autistic probands and their first-degree relatives. J Autism Dev Disord. 19:397-407.

Armstrong SE et al., 2010. The scope of mycoplasma contamination within the biopharmaceutical industry. Biologicals. 38:211-3. doi: 10.1016/j.biologicals.2010.03.002.

Berman JI et al., 2015. Abnormal auditory and language pathways in children with 16p11.2 deletion. Neuroimage Clin. 2;9:50-7. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2015.07.006.

Bresnahan M et al., 2015. Association of maternal report of infant and toddler gastrointestinal symptoms with autism: evidence from a prospective birth cohort. JAMA Psychiatry. 72:466-74. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.3034.

Cattani D et al., 2014. Mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity induced by glyphosate-based herbicide in immature rat hippocampus: involvement of glutamate excitotoxicity. Toxicology. 320:34-45. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2014.03.001.

Chaidez V et al., 2014. Gastrointestinal problems in children with autism, developmental delays or typical development. J Autism Dev Disord. 44:1117-27. doi: 10.1007/s10803-013-1973-x.

de Magistris L et al.. 2013. Antibodies against food antigens in patients with autistic spectrum disorders. Biomed Res Int. 2013:729349. doi: 10.1155/2013/729349.

Deykin EY, MacMahon B. 1979. Viral exposure and autism. Am J Epidemiol 109:628–38.

Frye RE et al., 2015. Approaches to studying and manipulating the enteric microbiome to improve autism symptoms. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 26:26878. doi: 10.3402/mehd.v26.26878.

Gillberg C, 1986. Onset at age 14 of a typical autistic syndrome. A case report of a girl with herpes simplex encephalitis. J Autism Dev Disord. 16:369-75.

Gillberg IC, 1991. Autistic syndrome with onset at age 31 years: herpes encephalitis as a possible model for childhood autism. Dev Med Child Neurol 33:920-4.

Gorrindo P et al., 2013. Enrichment of elevated plasma F2t-isoprostane levels in individuals with autism who are stratified by presence of gastrointestinal dysfunction. PLoS One. 8:e68444. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068444.

Grubišić V and Parpura V. 2015. The second brain in autism spectrum disorder: could connexin 43 expressed in enteric glial cells play a role? Front Cell Neurosci. 9:242. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00242.

Hornig, M et al., 2008. Lack of Association between Measles Virus Vaccine and Autism with Enteropathy: A Case-Control Study. PLoS ONE 3: e3140. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003140 journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0003140

Kazek B et al., 2010. Platelet and intestinal 5-HT2A receptor mRNA in autistic spectrum disorders – results of a pilot study. Syngery Phramac. Drug Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 70:232-8.

Kirchgessner AL et al., 1997. Excitotoxicity in the enteric nervous system. J Neurosci. 17(22):8804-16.

Krajmalnik-Brown R et al., 2015. Gut bacteria in children with autism spectrum disorders: challenges and promise of studying how a complex community influences a complex disease. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 26:26914. doi: 10.3402/mehd.v26.26914.

Lyons-Weiler, J. 2016. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation. Ch5 In: Cures vs. Profits: Successes in Translational Research. World Scientific, pp55-62.

McIntyre CK, Roozendaal B. 2007. Adrenal Stress Hormones and Enhanced Memory for Emotionally Arousing Experiences.in: In: Bermúdez-Rattoni F, editor. Neural Plasticity and Memory: From Genes to Brain Imaging. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2007. Chapter 13.

Ohmura Y et al., 2015. Serotonin 5-HT7 receptor in the ventral hippocampus modulates the retrieval of fear memory and stress-induced defecation. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. Dec 8. pii: pyv131. doi: 10.1093/ijnp/pyv131.

Palmieri L et al., 2010. Altered calcium homeostasis in autism-spectrum disorders: evidence from biochemical and genetic studies of the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier AGC1. Mol Psychiatry. 15:38-52. doi: 10.1038/mp.2008.63.

Paolicelli RC et al., 2011. Synaptic pruning by microglia is necessary for normal brain development. Science. 333(6048):1456-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1202529.

Poeran J et al., 2015. Antibiotic prophylaxis and risk of Clostridium difficile infection after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. Sep 28. pii: S0022-5223(15)01799-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.09.090.

Reichelt, WH et al., 1997. Urinary peptide levels and patterns in autistic children from seven countries and the effect of dietary intervention after 4 years. Developmental Brain Dysfunction 10:44-55.

Sampson TR and SK Mazmanian. 2015. Control of brain development, function and behavior by the microbiome. Cell Host Microbe. 17:565-76. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2015.04.011.

Samsam M et al., 2014. Pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders: revisiting gastrointestinal involvement and immune imbalance. World J Gastroenterol. 20:9942-51. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i29.9942.

Rodakis J. et al., 2015. An n=1 case report of a child with autism improving on antibiotics and a father’s quest to understand what it may mean. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 26:26382. doi: 10.3402/mehd.v26.26382.

Sandler RH 2000. Short-term benefit from oral vancomycin treatment of regressive-onset autism. J Child Neurol. 15:429-35.

Shaaya EA et al., 2015. Gastrointestinal problems in 15q duplication syndrome. Eur J Med Genet. 58:191-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2014.12.012.

Wakefield A et al. 1998. Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis and pervasive developmental disorder in children. The Lancet 351:637-41.RETRACTED.

Weiss LA et al., 2008. Association between microdeletion and microduplication at 16p11.2 and autism. N Engl J Med. 358:667-75. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa075974.

Welch MG et al., 2005. Brain effects of chronic IBD in areas abnormal in autism and treatment by single neuropeptides secretin and oxytocin. J Mol Neurosci. 25:259-74.

Uzunova, G. et al., 2014. The role of ionotropic glutamate receptors in childhood neurodevelopmental disorders: Autism Spectrum Disorders and Fragile X Syndrome. Current Neuropharmacology 12:71-98

Welsh, B. 2015. Mycoplasma fermentans and deciliation as a precusor to regressive autism. Swift Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Sept 2015.

Verbitsky et al., 2015. Genomic imbalances in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease. J Clin Invest. 125:2171-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI80877.

Verheijden S. 2015. Neuron-macrophage crosstalk in the intestine: a “microglia” perspective. Front Cell Neurosci. 9:403. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00403.

Chapter 9. Immunological Factors in Autism and ASD

Abdallah MW. 2013. Neonatal chemokine levels and risk of autism spectrum disorders: findings from a Danish historic birth cohort follow-up study. Cytokine. 61(2):370-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2012.11.015.

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Authier FJ, et al., 2006. AlOH3-adjuvanted vaccine-induced macrophagic myofasciitis in rats is influenced by the genetic background. Neuromuscul Disord 16(5):347–52.10.1016/j.nmd.2006.02.004

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Blaylock RL 2008. A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 1. Altern Ther Health Med. 14(6):46-53.

Blaylock RL. et al., 2009. A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 2: immunoexcitotoxicity. Altern Ther Health Med. 15(1):60-7.

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Branton WG et al., 2013. Brain microbial populations in HIV/AIDS: α-proteobacteria predominate independent of host immune status. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e54673. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054673.

Braunschweig D et al., 2008. Autism: maternally derived antibodies specific for fetal brain proteins. Neurotoxicology. 29(2):226-31.

Buonaguro L and B Pulendran, 2011. Immunogenomics and systems biology of vaccines. Immunol Rev. 239(1):197-208. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2010.00971.x.

Cabanlit M et al., 2007. Brain-specific autoantibodies in the plasma of subjects with autistic spectrum disorder. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1107:92-103.

Charleston JS 1996. Changes in the number of astrocytes and microglia in the thalamus of the monkey Macaca fascicularis following long-term subclinical methylmercury exposure. Neurotoxicology. 17(1):127-38.

Choi GB et al., 2016. The maternal interleukin-17a pathway in mice promotes autism-like phenotypes in offspring. Science. 351(6276):933-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0314.

Connolly AM et al., 1999. Serum autoantibodies to brain in Landau-Kleffner variant, autism and other neurologic disorders. J Pediatr 134(5):607-13.

Connors, DE et al., 2005. β2-Adrenergic receptor activation and genetic polymorphisms in autism: data from dizygotic twins. Journal of Child Neurology 20:876–884.

Costello DA et al.,2011. Long term potentiation is impaired in membrane glycoprotein CD200-deficient mice: A role for Toll-like receptor activation J Biol Chem 286: 34722–34732.

Croen LA et al., 2008. Maternal mid-pregnancy autoantibodies to fetal brain protein: the early markers for autism study. Biol Psychiatry. 64(7):583-8. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.05.006.

Croen, LA et al.,2011. Prenatal exposure to β2-adrenergic receptor agonists and risk of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders. 3:307–315.

Cunningham CL et al., 2013. Microglia regulate the number of neural precursor cells in the developing cerebral cortex. J Neurosci. 33(10):4216-33. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3441-12.2013.

Dalton P et al., 2003. Maternal neuronal antibodies associated with autism and a language disorder. Ann Neurol. 53:533–537.

Dodds, L et al.,2011. The role of prenatal, obstetric and neonatal factors in the development of autism. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 41:891–902. doi: 10.1007/s10803-010-1114-8

Downer EJ et al., 2010. A novel anti-inflammatory role of NCAM-derived mimetic peptide, FGL. Neurobiol Aging 3:118–128.

Davalos D et al., 2005. ATP mediates rapid microglial response to local brain injury in vivo. Nat Neurosci. 8(6):752-8.

Dello Russo C et al.,2009. Involvement of mTOR kinase in cytokine-dependent microglial activation and cell proliferation. Biochem Pharmacol. 78(9):1242-51. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.06.097.

Edlow AG et al., 2016. Males are from Mars, and females are from Venus: sex-specific fetal brain gene expression signatures in a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 May;214(5):623.e1-623.e10. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2016.02.054.

Fujii K et al., 2012. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine. Pediatr Int. 54(4):539-41. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-200X.2011.03501.x.

Gardner RM et al., 2015. Maternal body mass index during early pregnancy, gestational weight gain and risk of autism spectrum disorders: Results from a Swedish total population and discordant sibling study. Int J Epidemiol. 44(3):870-83. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyv081.

Geier DA et al. 2009. A prospective study of prenatal mercury exposure from maternal dental amalgams and autism severity. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 69(2):189-97.

Gherardi RK et al., 2001. Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide in muscle. Brain. 124(Pt 9):1821-31.

Gherardi R and Authier FJ. 2012. Macrophagic myofasciitis: characterization and pathophysiology. Lupus 21(2):184–9.10.1177/0961203311429557

Gherardi RK et al., 2015. Biopersistence and brain translocation of aluminum adjuvants of vaccines. Front Neurol. 6:4. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2015.00004.

Giovanoli S et al., 2015. Prenatal immune activation causes hippocampal synaptic deficits in the absence of overt microglia anomalies. Brain Behav Immun. pii: S0889-1591(15)30022-2. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2015.09.015.

Goines P, Van de Water J. 2010. The immune system’s role in the biology of autism. Curr Opin Neurol. 23(2):111-7. PMID: 20160651

Gold M et al., 2015. β-amyloid, microglia and the inflammasome in Alzheimer’s disease. Semin Immunopathol. 37(6):607-11. doi: 10.1007/s00281-015-0518-0.

Golub MS et al., 1999. Aluminum uptake and effects on transferrin mediated iron uptake in primary cultures of rat neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Neurotoxicology. 20:961-70.

Griffiths MR et al., 2009. The multiple roles of the innate immune system in the regulation of apoptosis and inflammation in the brain. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 68:217-26. doi: 10.1097/NEN.0b013e3181996688.

Gupta S et al., 2014. Transcriptome analysis reveals dysregulation of innate immune response genes and neuronal activity-dependent genes in autism. Nat Commun. 5:5748. doi: 10.1038/ncomms6748.

Hartzwell, S and S Seneff. 2012. Impaired sulfate metabolism and epigenetics: is there a link in autism? Entropy 2012:1953-1977.

Hatfield T and JL McGaugh. 1999. Norepinephrine infused into the basolateral amygdala posttraining enhances retention in a spatial water maze task. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 71:232-9.

Jabara HH et al., 2011. Ligation of CD46 to CD40 inhibits CD40 signaling in B cells. Int Immunol. 23(3):215-21. doi: 10.1093/intimm/dxq474.

Kang SS et al., 2014. Dietary intervention rescues maternal obesity induced behavior deficits and neuroinflammation in offspring. J Neuroinflammation. 11:156. doi: 10.1186/s12974-014-0156-9.

Katz J et al., 2016. Similar white matter but opposite grey matter changes in schizophrenia and high-functioning autism. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 134(1):31-9. doi: 10.1111/acps.12579.

Krakowiak, P.et al.,2012. Maternal metabolic conditions and risk for autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Pediatrics 129, e1121–e1128. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-2583.

Krakowiak et al., 2016. Autism-specific maternal anti-fetal brain autoantibodies are associated with metabolic conditions. Autism Res. 2016 Jun 17. doi: 10.1002/aur.1657.

Libbey JE et al. 2008. Are there enhanced MBP autoantibodies in autism? J Autism Dev Disord. 38:324-32.

Lintas C et al., 2009. Involvement of the PRKCB1 gene in autistic disorder: significant genetic association and reduced neocortical gene expression. Mol Psychiatry. 14:705-18. doi: 10.1038/mp.2008.21.

Lyons A et al., 2007. CD200 ligand receptor interaction modulates microglial activation in vivo and in vitro: a role for IL-4. J Neurosci 27: 8309–8313.

Machicado JD et al., 2013. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following seasonal influenza vaccination in an elderly patient. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 20(9):1485-6. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00307-13.

Madsen-Bouterse SA et al. 2010. The transcriptome of the fetal inflammatory response syndrome. Am J Reprod Immunol 63:73–92.

Martino D et al., 2015. The role of immune mechanisms in Tourette syndrome. Brain Res. 1617:126-43. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2014.04.027.

Matullo CM et al., 2011. CNS recruitment of CD8+ T lymphocytes specific for a peripheral virus infection triggers neuropathogenesis during polymicrobial challenge. PLoS Pathog. 7:e1002462. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002462.

McIntyre CK and B. Roozendaal. 2007. Adrenal Stress Hormones and Enhanced Memory for Emotionally Arousing Experiences.in: In: Bermúdez-Rattoni F, Editor. SourceNeural Plasticity and Memory: From Genes to Brain Imaging. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; Chapter 13.

Morgan JT et al., 2010. Microglial activation and increased microglial density observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in autism. Biological Psychiatry 68:368–376.

Moss, B et al., 2014. Increased risk of very low birth weight, rapid postnatal growth and autism in underweight and obese mothers. Am. J. Health Promot. 28:181–188. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.120705-QUAN-325.

Nakamura N et al., 2003 Neurologic complications associated with influenza vaccination: two adult cases. Intern Med. 42:191-4.

Ni, M et al., 2010. Methylmercury induces acute oxidative stress, altering Nrf2 protein level in primary microglial cells. Toxicol Sci. 116:590-603. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfq126.

Ni, L et al., 2007. Toll-like receptor ligands and CD154 stimulate microglia to produce a factor(s) that promotes excess cholinergic differentiation in the developing rat basal forebrain: implications for neurodevelopmental disorders. Pediatr Res. 61:15-20.

O’Connor TG et al., 2014. Depressive symptoms and immune response to meningococcal conjugate vaccine in early adolescence. Dev Psychopathol. 26(4 Pt 2):1567-76. doi: 10.1017/S0954579414001242.

Paolicelli RC et al., 2011. Synaptic pruning by microglia is necessary for normal brain development. Science. 333(6048):1456-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1202529.

Pardo et al., 2014 Immunological disarrangements in ASD are associated with biological processes and homeostatic mechanisms in ASD rather than autoimmunity or pathogenic inflammation https://imfar.confex.com/imfar/2014/webprogram/Paper17955.html

Parkhurst CN et al., 2013. Microglia promote learning-dependent synapse formation through brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Cell 155:1596-609. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.11.030.

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Petrik MS et al., 2007. Aluminum adjuvant linked to Gulf War illness induces motor neuron death in mice. Neuromolecular Med 9:83–100.

Philippi A et al. 2005. Haplotypes in the gene encoding protein kinase c-beta (PRKCB1) on chromosome 16 are associated with autism. Mol. Psychiatry 10: 950–60. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001704. PMID 16027742.

Piras IS 2014. Anti-brain antibodies are associated with more severe cognitive and behavioral profiles in Italian children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Brain Behav Immun. 38:91-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2013.12.020.

Ponomarev ED et al., 2006. CD40 expression by microglial cells is required for their completion of a two-step activation process during central nervous system autoimmune inflammation. J Immunol. 176:1402-10.

Prakash D et al., 2013. Fisetin enhances behavioral performances and attenuates reactive gliosis and inflammation during aluminum chloride-induced neurotoxicity. Neuromolecular Med. 15(1):192-208. doi: 10.1007/s12017-012-8210-1.

Ray B et al., 2016. Finding novel distinctions between the sAPPa-mediated anabolic biochemical pathways in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome plasma and brain tissue. Sci Rep. 2016 May 23;6:26052. doi: 10.1038/srep26052.

Roberts A et al., 2013. Perinatal air pollutant exposures and autism spectrum disorder in the children of Nurses’ Health Study II participants. Environ Health Perspect. 121:978-84. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1206187.

Rodriguez JI and JK. Kern. 2011. Evidence of microglial activation in autism and its possible role in brain underconnectivity. Neuron Glia Biol. 7(2-4): 205–213. doi: 10.1017/S1740925X12000142

Reynolds, L et al.,2014. Maternal obesity and increased risk for autism and developmental delay among very preterm infants. J. Perinatol. 34:688–692. doi: 10.1038/jp.2014.80.

Rodier P et al., 2011. Does treatment of premature labor with terbutaline increase the risk of autism spectrum disorders? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 204:91-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2010.11.030.

Rodriguez JI and JK Kern. 2011. Evidence of microglial activation in autism and its possible role in brain underconnectivity. Neuron Glia Biol. 7(2-4):205-13. doi: 10.1017/S1740925X12000142.

Rose S, et al., 2012. Intracellular and extracellular redox status and free radical generation in primary immune cells from children with autism. Autism Res Treat. 2012:986519. doi: 10.1155/2012/986519.

Rossi CC et al., 2013. Brief Report: antibodies reacting to brain tissue in Basque Spanish children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and their mothers. J Autism Dev Disord: 10.1007/s10803-013-1859-y.

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Sacheli A and R Bauer. 2014. Influenza vaccine-induced CNS demyelination in a 50-year-old male. Am J Case 15:368-73. doi: 10.12659/AJCR.891416.

Sanders, TR et al., 2014. Maternal obesity and IL-6 lead to aberrant developmental gene expression and deregulated neurite growth in the fetal arcuate nucleus. Endocrinology 155, 2566–2577. doi: 10.1210/en.2013-1968.

Sadasivan S et al.,2012. Methylphenidate exposure induces dopamine neuron loss and activation of microglia in the basal ganglia of mice. PLoS One. 7(3):e33693. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033693.

Sarkar S et al., 2015. Oral administration of thioflavin T prevents beta amyloid plaque formation in double transgenic AD Mice. Curr Alzheimer Res. 12(9):837-46.

Sequeira JM et al., 2013. The diagnostic utility of folate receptor autoantibodies in blood. Clin Chem Lab Med. 51(3):545-54. doi: 10.1515/cclm-2012-0577.

Seneff S et al., 2015. Aluminum and glyphosate can synergistically induce pineal gland pathology: connection to gut dysbiosis and neurological disease. Agricultural Sciences 6:42-70.

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Shapira I et al.,2015. Folate receptor autoantibodies in pregnancy related complications. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. doi: 10.1002/bdra.23436.

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Singh VK et al.,2002 . Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism. J Biomed Sci. 9:359-64.

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Smolders S et al., 2015. Maternal immune activation evoked by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid does not evoke microglial cell activation in the embryo. Front Cell Neurosci. 9:301. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00301.

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Sullivan EL 2014. Maternal high fat diet consumption during the perinatal period programs offspring behavior. Physiol Behav. 123:236-42. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.07.014.

Sun J et al., 2015. IL-17A is implicated in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in aged rats via microglial activation. J Neuroinflammation. 12:165. doi: 10.1186/s12974-015-0394-5.

Suzuki K et al., 2013. Microglial activation in young adults with autism spectrum disorder. JAMA Psychiatry. 70:49-58. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.272.

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Tanaka, S. et al., 2009. Activation of microglia induced learning and memory deficits. In: Transmitters and Modulators in Health and Disease. Springer. link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-4-431-99039-0_17.

Vargas DL et al., 2005. Neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with autism. Ann Neurol. 57:67-81.

Vergilio CS et al., 2015. Mercury-induced dysfunctions in multiple organelles leading to cell death. Toxicol In Vitro. 29:63-71. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2014.09.006.

Williamson LL 2011. Microglia and memory: modulation by early-life infection. J Neurosci. 31:15511-21. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3688-11.2011.

Xiang AH et al., 2015. Association of maternal diabetes with autism in offspring. JAMA 313:1425-34. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.2707.

Xie L et al., 2014. mTOR signaling inhibition modulates macrophage/microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and secondary injury via regulatory T cells after focal ischemia. J Immunol. 192(12):6009-19. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1303492.

Yuan CY et al., 2012. Aluminum overload increases oxidative stress in four functional brain areas of neonatal rats. J Biomed Sci. 19:51. doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-19-51.

Zeng KW et al., 2012. Aluminum maltolate induces primary rat astrocyte apoptosis via over-activation of the class III PI3K/Beclin 1-dependent autophagy signal. Toxicol In Vitro. 26:215-20. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2011.11.010.

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Zhan Y et al., 2014. Deficient neuron-microglia signaling results in impaired functional brain connectivity and social behavior. Nat Neurosci. 17:400-6. doi: 10.1038/nn.3641.

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Chapter 8. Sensory Phenotypes and Sensory Processing Disorder

Adams JN et al., 2015. Sensory processing in preterm preschoolers and its association with executive function. Early Hum Dev. 91(3):227-33. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2015.01.013.

Ashwin C et al., 2014. Enhanced olfactory sensitivity in autism spectrum conditions. Mol Autism. 5:53. doi: 10.1186/2040-2392-5-53.

Barmada MM et al., 2004. A genome scan in 260 inflammatory bowel disease-affected relative pairs. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 10(1):15-22.

Chang YS et al., 2014. Autism and sensory processing disorders: shared white matter disruption in sensory pathways but divergent connectivity in social-emotional pathways. PLoS One. 9(7):e103038. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103038.

Djurovic S et al., 2009. Association of MCTP2 gene variants with schizophrenia in three independent samples of Scandinavian origin (SCOPE). Psychiatry Res. 168(3):256-8. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2008.08.007.

Dohn A et al., 2012. Do musicians with perfect pitch have more autism traits than musicians without perfect pitch? An empirical study. PLoS One. 2012 7(5):e37961. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037961.

Farah R et al., 2014. Altered white matter microstructure underlies listening difficulties in children suspected of auditory processing disorders: a DTI study. Brain Behav 4(4):531-43. doi: 10.1002/brb3.237.

Foss-Feig JH et al., 2013. A substantial and unexpected enhancement of motion perception in autism. J Neurosci. 33(19):8243-9. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1608-12.2013.

Kaminsky EB et al., 2011. An evidence-based approach to establish the functional and clinical significance of copy number variants in intellectual and developmental disabilities. Genet Med13(9):777-84. doi: 10.1097/GIM.0b013e31822c79f9.

Foss-Feig JH et al., 2013. A substantial and unexpected enhancement of motion perception in autism. J Neurosci. 33(19):8243-9. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1608-12.2013.

Kochunov P et al. 2010. Genetics of microstructure of cerebral white matter using diffusion tensor imaging. Neuroimage. 53(3):1109-16. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.01.078.

Lange N et al., 2010. Atypical diffusion tensor hemispheric asymmetry in autism. Autism Res. 3(6):350-8. doi: 10.1002/aur.162.

Loui P et al., 2011. Enhanced cortical connectivity in absolute pitch musicians: a model for local hyperconnectivity. J Cogn Neurosci. 23(4):1015-26. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2010.21500.

Marenco S, 2007. Genetic contributions to white matter architecture revealed by diffusion tensor imaging in Williams syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 104(38):15117-22.

Mostert-Kerckhoffs MA et al., 2015. Stop and change: inhibition and flexibility skills are related to repetitive behavior in children and young adults with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 45(10):3148-58. doi: 10.1007/s10803-015-2473-y.

McAuley EZ et al., 2009. A genome screen of 35 bipolar affective disorder pedigrees provides significant evidence for a susceptibility locus on chromosome 15q25-26. Mol Psychiatry. 14(5):492-500. doi: 10.1038/sj.mp.4002146.

Monnier PP et al., 2002. RGM is a repulsive guidance molecule for retinal axons. Nature. 419(6905):392-5.

Oechslin MS. 2010. Absolute pitch–functional evidence of speech-relevant auditory acuity. Cereb Cortex. 20(2):447-55. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhp113.

Owen JP et al., 2013. Abnormal white matter microstructure in children with sensory processing disorders. Neuroimage Clin. 2:844-53. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2013.06.009.

Paul LK et al., 2011. Developmental malformation of the corpus callosum: a review of typical callosal development and examples of developmental disorders with callosal involvement. J Neurodev Disord. 3(1):3-27. doi: 10.1007/s11689-010-9059-y.

Plitt M et al., 2014. Functional connectivity classification of autism identifies highly predictive brain features but falls short of biomarker standards. Neuroimage Clin. 7:359-66. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2014.12.013.

Pryweller JR et al., 2014. White matter correlates of sensory processing in autism spectrum disorders. Neuroimage Clin. 6:379-87. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2014.09.018.

Roberts TP et al., 2013. Maturational differences in thalamocortical white matter microstructure and auditory evoked response latencies in autism spectrum disorders. Brain Res. 1537:79-85. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2013.09.011.

Sambo F et al., 2014. Novel genetic susceptibility loci for diabetic end-stage renal disease identified through robust naive Bayes classification. Diabetologia. 57(8):1611-22. doi: 10.1007/s00125-014-3256-2.

Sandholm N et al., 2012. New susceptibility loci associated with kidney disease in type 1 diabetes. PLoS Genet. 8(9):e1002921. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002921.

Schoen SA et al., 2009. Physiological and behavioral differences in sensory processing: a comparison of children with autism spectrum disorder and sensory modulation disorder. Front Integr Neurosci. 3:29. doi: 10.3389/neuro.07.029.2009.

Theusch E et al., 2009. Genome-wide study of families with absolute pitch reveals linkage to 8q24.21 and locus heterogeneity. Am J Hum Genet. 85(1):112-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.06.010.

van Campen JS et al., 2015. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy. J Neurodev Disord. 7:34. doi: 10.1186/s11689-015-9130-9.

van der Plas E et al. Association of autism spectrum disorder with obsessive-compulsive and attention-deficit/hyperactivity traits and response inhibition in a community sample.  J Autism Dev Disord. 246(9):3115-25. doi: 10.1007/s10803-016-2853-y.

Ziv N, Radin S. Absolute and relative pitch: Global versus local processing of chords. Adv Cogn Psychol. 10(1):15-25. doi: 10.2478/v10053-008-0152-7.

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Chapter 7. Repetitive Motor Behaviors and Seizure Phenotypes

Brune CW et al., 2006. 5-HTTLPR genotype-specific phenotype in children and adolescents with autism. Am J Psychiatry. 163(12):2148-56.

Chugani DC et al., 2004. Serotonin in autism and pediatric epilepsies. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 10(2):112-6.

Dambach H et al., 2014. Glia and epilepsy: experimental investigation of antiepileptic drugs in an astroglia/microglia co-culture model of inflammation. Epilepsia. 55(1):184-92. doi: 10.1111/epi.12473.

de Silva MG et al., 2003. Disruption of a novel member of a sodium/hydrogen exchanger family and DOCK3 is associated with an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like phenotype. J Med Genet. 40(10):733-40.

Díaz-Anzaldúa A, to al., 2015. Possible endophenotypes in the search for genetic risk factors in autism spectrum disorders in: “Autism Spectrum Disorder – Recent Advances”, Michael Fitzgerald (Ed) , ISBN 978-953-51-2037-7, Published: April 2, 2015 under CC BY 3.0 license.

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Fassio, A., et al., 2011. SYN1 loss-of-function mutations in ASD and partial epilepsy cause impaired synaptic function. Human Molecular Genetics, 2011; DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddr122

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causes2

Chapter 6. Cognitive Phenotypes in ASD

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